Claire McCaskill, asserts that the evidence shows Backpage is no ordinary publisher. Therefore, the subcommittee says, Backpage played a direct role in the criminal activity. Liz McDougall, a Backpage attorney, has not yet responded to the report. She is on the list of Backpage executives called to testify Tuesday. By October , Backpage executives formalized the process with both manual and automated deletion, they said.
Backpage executives and employees knew clearly what they were doing, the investigators said. Moderators for the website told the subcommittee "that everyone at the company knew the adult-section ads were for prostitution and that their job was to 'put lipstick on a pig' by sanitizing them," according to the report.
Backpage "is involved in 73 percent of all child trafficking reports that the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children receives from the general public," according to the Senate report. The subcommittee ultimately obtained about 1. Backpage has said repeatedly that it cannot take responsibility for the content of all its ads.
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Media, law enforcement, politicians and parents of trafficked children have weighed in on this matter, according to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, the majority of child sex trafficking cases referred to NCMEC involve ads on Backpage. Backpage says that it blocks about a million ads per month, of those, they report around ads a month to NCMEC which in turn notify law enforcement.
Content submitted to Backpage is surveyed by a scan for terms related to prostitution. At least one member of a team of over people also oversees each entry before it is posted, Backpage has had continued issues with credit card processors, who were under pressure from law enforcement to cease working with companies that allegedly allow or encourage illegal prostitution.
In Backpage lost all credit card processing agreements, leaving Bitcoin as the option for paid ads. In an amicus brief, the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children says the efforts of Backpage are inadequate. Credit card — The card issuer creates a revolving account and grants a line of credit to the cardholder, from which the cardholder can borrow money for payment to a merchant or as a cash advance.
A credit card is different from a card, where it requires the balance to be repaid in full each month. In contrast, credit cards allow the consumers a continuing balance of debt, a credit card also differs from a cash card, which can be used like currency by the owner of the card. This is the first six digits for MasterCard and Visa cards, the next nine digits are the individual account number, and the final digit is a validity check code.
Many modern credit cards have a chip embedded in them as a security feature. In addition to the credit card number, credit cards also carry issue and expiration dates, as well as extra codes such as issue numbers. Not all credit cards have the sets of extra codes nor do they use the same number of digits.
The concept of using a card for purchases was described in by Edward Bellamy in his utopian novel Looking Backward. Bellamy used the credit card eleven times in this novel, although this referred to a card for spending a citizens dividend from the government.
Charge coins and other items were used from the late 19th century to the s. They came in various shapes and sizes, with materials made out of celluloid, copper, aluminum, steel, each charge coin usually had a little hole, enabling it to be put in a key ring, like a key. These charge coins were given to customers who had charge accounts in department stores, hotels. A charge coin usually had the account number along with the merchants name.
The charge coin offered a simple and fast way to copy a charge account number to the sales slip and this sped the process of copying, previously done by handwriting. It also reduced the number of errors, by having a form of numbers on the sales slip.
Because the customers name was not on the coin, almost anyone could use it. Bitcoin — Bitcoin is both a cryptocurrency and an electronic payment system,3 invented by an unidentified programmer, or group of programmers, under the name of Satoshi Nakamoto.
Bitcoin was introduced on 31 October to a mailing list. The identity of Nakamoto remains unknown, though many have claimed to know it, the system is peer-to-peer, and transactions take place between users directly, without an intermediary. These transactions are verified by network nodes and recorded in a public distributed ledger called the blockchain, since the system works without a central repository or single administrator, the U.
Treasury categorizes bitcoin as a decentralized virtual currency. Bitcoin is often called the first cryptocurrency, although prior systems existed, Bitcoin is the largest of its kind in terms of total market value. Bitcoins are created as a reward in a competition in which users offer their computing power to verify and this activity is referred to as mining and successful miners are rewarded with transaction fees and newly created bitcoins.
Besides being obtained by mining, bitcoins can be exchanged for other currencies, products, when sending bitcoins, users can pay an optional transaction fee to the miners. This may expedite the transaction being confirmed, as of February , over , merchants and vendors accept bitcoin as payment.
The European Banking Authority and other sources have warned that bitcoin users are not protected by refund rights or chargebacks, the use of bitcoin by criminals has attracted the attention of financial regulators, legislative bodies, law enforcement, and media. Criminal activities are focused on darknet markets and theft, though officials in countries such as the United States also recognize that bitcoin can provide legitimate financial services. The word bitcoin occurred in the paper that defined bitcoin published in It is a compound of the bit and coin.
The white paper uses the shorter coin. There is no convention for bitcoin capitalization. Some sources use Bitcoin, capitalized, to refer to the technology and network and bitcoin, lowercase, the Wall Street Journal, The Chronicle of Higher Education, and the Oxford English Dictionary advocate use of lowercase bitcoin in all cases, which this article follows.
The blockchain is a ledger that records bitcoin transactions. A novel solution accomplishes this without any trusted central authority, maintenance of the blockchain is performed by a network of communicating nodes running bitcoin software, transactions of the form payer X sends Y bitcoins to payee Z are broadcast to this network using readily available software applications. Amicus curiae brief — An amicus curiae is someone who is not a party to a case and is not solicited by a party, but who assists a court by offering information that bears on the case.
The decision on whether to admit the information lies at the discretion of the court, the phrase amicus curiae is legal Latin. The amicus curiae figure originates in Roman law, starting in the 9th century, it was incorporated into English law, and it was later extended to most common law systems. Later, it was introduced in law, in particular concerning human rights.
From there, it was integrated in some civil law systems, the role of an amicus is often confused with that of an intervener. The situation most often noted in the press is when an advocacy group files a brief in a case before a court to which it is not a litigant.
Appellate cases are limited to the factual record and arguments coming from the lower court case under appeal. In prominent cases, amici curiae are generally organizations with sizable legal budgets, if a decision could affect an entire industry, companies other than the litigants may wish to have their concerns heard. In the United States, federal courts hear cases involving the constitutionality of state laws. Amici curiae who do not file briefs often present a perspective on the case.
For example, if the law gives deference to a history of legislation of a certain topic, an economist, statistician, or sociologist may choose to do the same. Newspaper editorials, blogs, and other opinion pieces arguably have the capability to influence Supreme Court decisions as de facto amici curiae. They are not, however, technically considered amicus curiae, as they do not submit materials to the Court, do not need to ask for leave, and have no guarantee that they will be read.
The Supreme Court of the United States has special rules for amicus curiae briefs sought to be filed in cases pending before it. Supreme Court Rule 37 states, in part, such a brief should cover relevant matter not dealt with by the parties which may be of considerable help. The cover of an amicus brief must identify which party the brief is supporting, the Court also requires that, inter alia, all non-governmental amici identify those providing a monetary contribution to the preparation or submission of the brief.
Briefs must be prepared in booklet format, and 40 copies must be served with the Court. Non-governmental organization — A non-governmental organization is a not-for-profit organization that is independent from states and international governmental organizations.
They are usually funded by donations but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers, NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world.
Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes, others may be fronts for political, religious, or other interests. The number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 3. The most common focus is on orientation and level of operation, an NGOs orientation refers to the type of activities it takes on. These activities might include human rights, environmental, improving health, an NGOs level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, regional, national, or international.
The term non-governmental organization was first coined in , when the United Nations was created, later the term became used more widely. One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as change, malaria prevention.
Public surveys reveal that NGOs often enjoy a degree of public trust. It includes NGOs with activities directed toward meeting the needs of the poor people, in the classical community development project, participation begins with the need definition and continues into the planning and implementation stages. There is maximum involvement of the beneficiaries with NGOs acting as facilitators, community-based organizations arise out of peoples own initiatives.
They can be responsible for raising the consciousness of the poor, helping them to understand their rights in accessing needed services. Some have state and city branches and assist local NGOs and they can be responsible for funding local NGOs, institutions and projects and implementing projects.
It is the most widely circulated newspaper published in Washington, D. Located in the city of the United States, the newspaper has a particular emphasis on national politics. Daily editions are printed for the District of Columbia, Maryland, the newspaper is published as a broadsheet, with photographs printed both in color and in black and white. The newspaper has won 47 Pulitzer Prizes and this includes six separate Pulitzers awarded in , the second-highest number ever awarded to a single newspaper in one year, second only to The New York Times seven awards in Post journalists have also received 18 Nieman Fellowships and White House News Photographers Association awards, in years since, its investigations have led to increased review of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center.
In , its owners, the Graham family, sold the newspaper to billionaire entrepreneur. The Post has distinguished itself through its reporting on the workings of the White House, Congress. It is one of the two daily broadsheets published in Washington D. In , the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition, the majority of its newsprint readership is in District of Columbia and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.
The Sunday Style section differs slightly from the weekday Style section, it is in a tabloid format, and it houses the reader-written humor contest The Style Invitational. In November , it announced the closure of its U. The newspaper has bureaus in Maryland and Virginia. While its circulation has been slipping, it has one of the highest market-penetration rates of any metropolitan news daily, for many decades, the Post had its main office at 15th Street NW.
Kessler is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the author of The Confidante, Condoleezza Rice, Kesslers reporting played a role in two foreign policy controversies during the presidency of George W. He was called to testify in the trial of I, lewis Scooter Libby, in which he was questioned about a telephone conversation with Libby in which the name of Valerie Plame, a CIA operative, might have been discussed. Meanwhile, a telephone conversation between Kessler and Steve J.
The federal government recorded the call and made it the centerpiece of its indictment of Rosen and an alleged co-conspirator, the Wall Street Journal called Kessler one of the most aggressive journalists on the State Department beat.
Kessler, a specialist on nuclear proliferation and the Middle East and he was immediately attacked for spreading neoconservative propaganda but his reporting turned out to be correct and apologies were later offered. In a lengthy article, Kessler also revealed the Bush administrations internal decision-making that led to the Iraq war and he traveled with three different Secretaries of State — Colin Powell, Condoleezza Rice and Hillary Clinton — and for several years wrote a blog about his experiences on those trips.
An article he wrote on apparent tensions between Rice and Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld during a trip to Iraq was later denounced by Rumsfeld as just fairly typical Washington Post stuff.
Kessler joined The Washington Post in as the business editor. Kessler also was a reporter with Newsday for eleven years, covering the White House, politics and he won the Premier Award from the Aviation Space Writers Association and the investigative reporting award from the Society of the Silurians. At Newsday, Kessler shared in two Pulitzer Prizes given for spot news reporting. In a study of checkers, the Center for Media.
Yet Power Line also said that Kesslers extensive review of Democratic charges that Romney was a flip-flopper turned out to be admirably fair-minded. The app was created by his son, Hugo Kessler and it contained his newest articles and general biographical information. The app was updated with a new design for iOS7 in the fall of , in , he released a redesigned version of the app for the iPad and added a Pinocchio Game based on his column and a multitude of video interviews.
Public relations — Public relations is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization and the public. Public relations may include an organization or individual gaining exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and this differentiates it from advertising as a form of marketing communications. Public relations is the idea of creating coverage for clients for free, an example of good public relations would be generating an article featuring a client, rather than paying for the client to be advertised next to the article.
Jobs central to public relations include account coordinator, account executive, account supervisor, Public relations specialists establish and maintain relationships with an organizations target audience, the media, and other opinion leaders.
The public relations professional must know how to address those concerns using the most powerful tool of the public relations trade.
Public relations and journalism have similarities in the work they do, followed by executing a program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance. However, when Lee was later asked about his role in a hearing with the United Transit Commission, in , historian Eric Goldman noted that the definition of public relations in Websters would be disputed by both practitioners and critics in the field.
Public Relations Society of America, a trade association, defined public relations in as, Public relations helps an organization. Public relations can also be defined as the practice of managing communication between an organization and its publics, most textbooks consider the establishment of the Publicity Bureau in to be the founding of the public relations profession.
Basil Clark is considered the founder of public relations in the United Kingdom for his establishment of Editorial Services in , most historians believe public relations became established first in the US by Ivy Lee or Edward Bernays, then spread internationally. Many American companies with PR departments spread the practice to Europe when they created European subsidiaries as a result of the Marshall plan, the second half of the s is considered the professional development building era of public relations.
Trade associations, PR news magazines, international PR agencies, in the early s, press release services began offering social media press releases.
Bureau of Labor Statistics also projects an employment growth of 12 percent between and for the profession, where an additional 27, jobs will need to be filled. The public relations profession has claimed the No.
In , Persson acquired the hunting apparel retailer Mauritz Widforss, which led to the inclusion of a collection in the product range. The company was listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange in , shortly after, in , the first store outside of Scandinavia opened in London. The two-letter domain was registered in the early s, but data on the first registration is lost, the first US store opened in on Fifth Avenue, New York.
In , the company announced in a release that it would begin selling home furnishings. In November , the company launched a collection by Stella McCartney and, in November , in March , it launched another collaboration designed by the pop star Madonna. In June the company worked with game developers Maxis to create a stuff pack for the latters The Sims 2 computer game, in November , the company launched a collection by Italian designer Roberto Cavalli.
It was reported that the sold out very quickly. For spring and summer , the British designer Matthew Williamson created two exclusive ranges for the company — the first being a collection of womens clothes released in selected stores, the second collection saw Williamson branch into menswear for the first time, only in selected stores. IKEA — IKEA, is a multinational group, headquartered in the Netherlands, that designs and sells ready-to-assemble furniture, kitchen appliances and home accessories.
It has been the worlds largest furniture retailer since at least , the company is known for its modern architectural designs for various types of appliances and furniture, and its interior design work is often associated with an eco-friendly simplicity.
The IKEA group has a corporate structure, which the European Union has alleged was designed to avoid over 1 billion Euros in tax payments over the period. It is controlled by several foundations based in the Netherlands, Luxembourg, as of December , IKEA owns and operates stores in 48 countries.
There were over 2. Ingvar Kamprad founded IKEA in as a mostly mail-order sales business and it began to sell furniture five years later. The stores spread to parts of Europe in the s, with the first store outside Scandinavia opening in Switzerland. Amid a high level of success, the companys West German executives accidentally opened a store in Konstanz in instead of Koblenz, later that decade, stores opened in other parts of the world, such as Japan, Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, and Singapore.
The company then expanded into more countries in the s and s, Germany, with 50 stores, is IKEAs biggest market, followed by the United States, with 44 stores. As of July , the presence in developing countries remains minimal. The next store opening in Goyang in will be larger at , square meters in gross floor area.
The biggest store in North America is located in Montreal, in the province of Quebec, the store was opened in in the Ville-St-Laurent area, and was completely renovated and expanded in Built in , the initial area was 22, m2.
As of January 6,, the company operates retail stores in all 50 U. After a series of mergers and bankruptcies in the American bookstore industry since the s, previously, Barnes and Noble operated the chain of small B. Dalton Booksellers stores in malls until they announced the liquidation of the chain. In the long history of the bookstore, the partnership was a brief interlude of thirteen years.
In , at the height of the Great Depression, the moved to a flagship location on 18th Street and Fifth Avenue. The Noble family retained ownership of a publishing business. In , the store was one of the first businesses to feature Muzak and that decade the company opened stores in Brooklyn and Chicago.
William Barnes died in , at the age of 78, John Barnes died in , and the company was sold to the conglomerate Amtel two years later. Dalton chain from Dayton Hudson in , the last B. Dalton stores were scheduled to close in January In , Barnes and Noble had purchased the store chain Bookstop, the acquisition of the B.
Dalton bookstores turned the company into a nationwide retailer, and by the end of fiscal year , the second-largest online bookseller in the United States. Alicia Keys — Alicia Augello Cook, known professionally as Alicia Keys, is an American singer, songwriter, record producer, pianist and actress. Keys released her album with J Records, having had previous record deals first with Columbia.
Keys debut album, Songs in A Minor was released in , producing her first Billboard Hot number-one single Fallin, the album earned Keys five Grammy Awards in The album garnered her an additional four Grammy Awards in , later that year, she released her first live album, Unplugged, becoming the first woman to have an MTV Unplugged album debut at number one.
As I Am was released in , producing the Hot number-one single No One, selling 5 million copies worldwide, the Element of Freedom was released in , becoming her first chart-topping album in the UK, and selling 4 million copies worldwide. Keys additionally collaborated with Jay Z on Empire State of Mind as her fourth number-one single, Girl on Fire was released in as her fifth Billboard topping album, spawning the successful title track.
Keys made her first television appearance on The Cosby Show in as a four year old child and she made her film debut in Smokin Aces and later in The Nanny Diaries in She is the child of Teresa, a paralegal and part-time actress, and Craig Cook.
Keys father is African American and her mother is of Italian, Scottish, Keys has expressed that she was comfortable with her multiracial heritage because she felt she was able to relate to different cultures. Her parents separated when she was two and she was raised by her mother during her formative years in Hells Kitchen. Keys has 2 younger half brothers, Clay Cook and Cole Cook, in , Keys made an appearance on The Cosby Show at the age of four, where she and a group of girls played the parts of Rudy Huxtables sleepover guests in the episode Slumber Party.
Throughout her childhood, Keys was sent to music and dance classes by her mother and she graduated in four years as valedictorian at the age of Following years of success, R. Records in , and began to espouse political and environmental concerns while playing large arenas worldwide. By the early s, when alternative rock began to experience mainstream success, R. The band then released its two most commercially successful albums, Out of Time and Automatic for the People, which veered from the established sound.
Re-signed with Warner Bros. The following year, Bill Berry left the band, while Stipe, Buck, in , the band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in their first year of eligibility. The pair discovered that they shared similar tastes in music, particularly in rock and protopunk artists like Patti Smith, Television.
Stipe said, It turns out that I was buying all the records that was saving for himself, Stipe and Buck soon met fellow University of Georgia students Mike Mills and Bill Berry, who had played music together since high school and lived together in Georgia.
The quartet agreed to collaborate on songs, Stipe later commented that there was never any grand plan behind any of it. Their still-unnamed band spent a few months rehearsing and played its first show on April 5,, at a friends birthday party held in a converted Episcopal church in Athens. After considering names like Twisted Kites, Cans of Piss, and Negro Wives, the band members eventually dropped out of school to focus on their developing group.
They found a manager in Jefferson Holt, a store clerk who was so impressed by an R. Toured throughout the Southern United States, touring was arduous because a touring circuit for alternative rock bands did not then exist. The Roots are known for a jazzy and eclectic approach to hip-hop featuring live musical instruments, Leonard Hub Hubbard, and Josh Abrams were added to the band.
The Roots work has consistently met with critical acclaim. They would busk out on the corners with Questlove playing bucket drums. In , they dropped the Square because a local group had claim to the name. What They Do was also the groups first single to hit the Top 40 of Billboards charts, while continuing on the path of live instrumentation, the albums sound was somewhat darker.
The group released Things Fall Apart in and this was their breakthrough album, peaking at No. The album was certified platinum in April, In the summer, the performed at the Woodstock 99 concert in New York state. The group rose to prominence in the early s with their distinctive, the band began their career touring and performing at bars and clubs around the Southeast for two years while honing their sound and writing music.
Howard grew up interested in music, filling notebooks with lyrics and teaching herself to play drums, bass and she met upperclassman Heath Fogg in junior high when he played guitar at house parties.
She met classmate and bassist Zac Cockrell in a psychology class some time later, after graduation, Howard hosted twice-weekly jam sessions at her great-grandparents former home.
Drummer Steve Johnson, who had heard Howard singing at a party years prior and they began making music together and recording homemade demos having little else to do in the small town. The group made its debut in May under the name The Shakes. Fogg, by this point a guitarist in the Tuscaloosa-based Tucos Pistol, the band was nervous to perform for an audience, as they felt vulnerable.
For much of their years, the Shakes performed shows on weekends at sports bars. The band chose Tokics over other studios because they mostly live to tape. The band would complete arrangements in their hometown and drive an hour and their first breakthrough came when Justin Gage, a Los Angeles music blogger and SiriusXM host, found a photo of Howard performing online. By the next morning, the group was awash in offers from record labels, Gage also contacted Patterson Hood, vocalist of the band Drive-By Truckers, who attended a show not long after.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu of South Africa has described Kristof as an honorary African for shining a spotlight on neglected conflicts, Kristof was born in Chicago, Illinois, and grew up on a sheep and cherry farm in Yamhill, Oregon. Nicholas Kristof graduated from Yamhill Carlton High School, where he was student body president and school newspaper editor, and later became a Phi Beta Kappa graduate of Harvard College.
At Harvard, he studied government and worked on The Harvard Crimson newspaper, Alums recall Kristof as one of the brightest undergraduates on campus, after Harvard, he studied law at Magdalen College, Oxford, as a Rhodes Scholar.
He earned his law degree with honors and won an academic prize. Afterward, he studied Arabic in Egypt for the —84 academic year and he has a number of honorary degrees. His columns have focused on global health, poverty. In particular, since he has dozens of columns about Darfur. I am personally in his debt, as are we all. Joyce Barnathan, president of the International Center for Journalists, said in a statement, a framed copy of that article is in the gallery of the Gates Foundation.
They were the first married couple to win a Pulitzer for journalism, Kristof has also received the George Polk Award and an award from the Overseas Press Club for his reporting which focuses on human rights and environmental issues. In , Kristof was named one of seven Top American Leaders by the Harvard Kennedy School and his writing has reshaped the field of opinion journalism, The Washington Post explained in granting the award. Freedom of speech — Freedom of speech is the right to articulate ones opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship, or societal sanction.
The term freedom of expression is used synonymously, but includes any act of seeking, receiving and imparting information or ideas. The right to freedom of expression includes the right to take, concepts of freedom of speech can be found in early human rights documents. Englands Bill of Rights legally established the right of freedom of speech in Parliament which is still in effect. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, adopted during the French Revolution in , specifically affirmed freedom of speech as an inalienable right.
The Declaration provides for freedom of expression in Article 11, which states that, The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man.
Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, Today, freedom of speech, or the freedom of expression, is recognized in international and regional human rights law. This means that the protection of freedom of speech as a right not only the content. The right to freedom of speech and expression is related to other rights. As a general freedom of expression may not limit the right to privacy, as well as the honor. However greater latitude is given when criticism of public figures is involved, the right to freedom of expression is particularly important for media, which plays a special role as the bearer of the general right to freedom of expression for all.
However, freedom of the press is not necessarily enabling freedom of speech, lichtenberg argues that freedom of the press is simply a form of property right summed up by the principle no money, no voice. Freedom of speech is understood to be fundamental in a democracy, the norms on limiting freedom of expression mean that public debate may not be completely suppressed even in times of emergency.
One of the most notable proponents of the link between freedom of speech and democracy is Alexander Meiklejohn and he argues that the concept of democracy is that of self-government by the people. For such a system to work an informed electorate is necessary, in order to be appropriately knowledgeable, there must be no constraints on the free flow of information and ideas. According to Meiklejohn, democracy will not be true to its essential ideal if those in power are able to manipulate the electorate by withholding information, Meiklejohn acknowledges that the desire to manipulate opinion can stem from the motive of seeking to benefit society.
However, he argues, choosing manipulation negates, in its means, eric Barendt has called this defense of free speech on the grounds of democracy probably the most attractive and certainly the most fashionable free speech theory in modern Western democracies.
Emerson expanded on this defense when he argued that freedom of speech helps to provide a balance between stability and change, Freedom of speech acts as a safety valve to let off steam when people might otherwise be bent on revolution. Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution — The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution is part of the Bill of Rights and protects a person from being compelled to be a witness against themselves in a criminal case.
A defendant cannot be compelled to become a witness at his own trial, if, however, they choose to testify, they are not entitled to their right, and inferences can be drawn from a refusal to answer a question during cross-examination. The Amendment requires that felonies be tried only upon indictment by a grand jury, federal grand juries can force people to take the witness stand, but defendants in those proceedings have Fifth Amendment privileges until they choose to answer any question.
To claim the privilege for failure to answer when being interviewed by police, the Amendments Double Jeopardy Clause provides the right to be tried only once in federal court for the same offense.
The Amendment also has a Due Process Clause as well as an equal protection requirement. Finally, the Amendment requires that the power of eminent domain be coupled with just compensation for those whose property is taken and this draft was edited by Congress, all the material before the first ellipsis was placed at the end, and some of the wording was modified.
After approval by Congress, the amendment was ratified by the states, the grand jury is a pre-constitutional common law institution, and a constitutional fixture in its own right exclusively embracing common law. Many constitutional restrictions that apply in court or in other situations do not apply during grand jury proceedings, also, an individual does not have the right to have an attorney present in the grand jury room during hearings.
Currently, federal law permits the trial of misdemeanors without indictments, additionally, in trials of non-capital felonies, the prosecution may proceed without indictments if the defendants waive their Fifth Amendment right. Grand jury indictments may be amended by the only in limited circumstances. In Ex Parte Bain, U. Thus, lesser included charges may be dropped, but new charges may not be added, the Grand Jury Clause of the Fifth Amendment does not protect those serving in the armed forces, whether during wartime or peacetime.
Members of the militia called up to serve with federal forces are not protected under the clause either. The grand jury indictment clause of the Fifth Amendment has not been incorporated under the Fourteenth Amendment and this means that the grand jury requirement applies only to felony charges in the federal court system.
While many states do employ grand juries, no defendant has a Fifth Amendment right to a jury for criminal charges in state court. States are free to abolish grand juries, and many have replaced them with preliminary hearing, the historical origin of infamous crime comes from the infamia, a punishment under Roman law by which a citizen was deprived his citizenship. In April , a nineteen-year-old male contacted her through the site, the two parties communicated offline and formed a relationship.
They met in person on May 12,, and Solis sexually assaulted Plaintiff at this meeting, on May 13,, Plaintiffs mother called the Austin Police Department to report the sexual assault of her daughter. The minor and her mother sued MySpace and its parent, News Corp. Plaintiffs first filed a lawsuit in Texas state court, however filed a motion for nonsuit which the Texas court granted, subsequently, Plaintiffs refiled in Bronx County, New York, however this time they did not name Solis as a defendant.
Defendants immediately removed the case, pursuant to 28 U. Plaintiffs withdrew their claims for fraud and negligent misrepresentation, thus the District Court dismissed those claims without prejudice, Plaintiffs filed a writ of certiorari to the Supreme Court of the United States who declined to hear the case.
Defendants moved to dismiss the case with prejudice, pursuant to Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12, both parties conceded that MySpace is an interactive computer service as defined by the CDA, and it is clear MySpace would meet the statutory definition of such a service. Ultimately, the court viewed Plaintiffs claims as directed toward MySpace in its publishing, editorial, thus, the court held that Defendants were entitled to immunity under the CDA and therefore dismissed Plaintiffs negligence and gross negligence claims under Federal Rules of Civil Procedure Rule The court held that a person has no duty to protect another from the criminal acts of a third person or control the conduct of another.
Thus, the court found Plaintiffs had failed to state a claim for negligence or gross negligence because MySpace had no duty to protect Plaintiff Doe from Soliss criminal sexual assault. With respect to Plaintiffs negligence arguments, the found that the claims were barred by the CDA. In its analysis, the court observed that courts had construed CDA immunity broadly in all cases arising from the publication of user-generated content. Specifically, the court relied on Green v. Washington state — It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State or the State of Washington to distinguish it from Washington, Washington is the 18th largest state with an area of 71, square miles, and the 13th most populous state with over 7 million people.
Washington is the second most populous state on the West Coast and in the Western United States, Mount Rainier, an active stratovolcano, is the states highest elevation at almost 14, feet and is the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous United States.
Washington is a leading lumber producer and its rugged surface is rich in stands of Douglas fir, hemlock, ponderosa pine, white pine, spruce, larch, and cedar. Manufacturing industries in Washington include aircraft and missiles, shipbuilding and other equipment, lumber, food processing, metals and metal products, chemicals.
Washington has over 1, dams, including the Grand Coulee Dam, built for a variety of purposes including irrigation, power, flood control, the Washington Territory was named after George Washington, the first President of the United States.
The area was part of a region called the Columbia District after the Columbia River. The area was renamed Washington in order to avoid confusion with the District of Columbia, Washington is the only U. To distinguish it from the U. Washingtonians and other residents of the Pacific Northwest refer to the state simply as Washington, calling the nations capital Washington, D.
Washington is bordered by Oregon to the south, with the Columbia River forming the western part, to the west of Washington lies the Pacific Ocean. The high mountains of the Cascade Range run north-south, bisecting the state, from the Cascade Mountains westward, Western Washington has a mostly marine west coast climate, with mild temperatures and wet winters, autumns and springs, and relatively dry summers.
The Cascade Range contains several volcanoes, which reach altitudes significantly higher than the rest of the mountains, from the north to the south, these major volcanoes are Mount Baker, Glacier Peak, Mount Rainier, Mount St. Helens, and Mount Adams. Mount Rainier, the tallest mountain in the state, is 50 miles south of the city of Seattle and it is also covered with more glacial ice than any other peak in the contiguous 48 states. Western Washington also is home of the Olympic Mountains, far west on the Olympic Peninsula and these deep forests, such as the Hoh Rainforest, are among the only temperate rainforests in the continental United States.
Eastern Washington — the part of the state east of the Cascades — has a dry climate. It includes large areas of steppe and a few truly arid deserts lying in the rain shadow of the Cascades.
Farther east, the climate becomes less arid, with annual rainfall increasing as one goes east to The Constitution, originally comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, Articles Four, Five and Six entrench concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments and of the states in relationship to the federal government.
Article Seven establishes the procedure used by the thirteen States to ratify it. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty, the majority of the seventeen later amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others address issues related to federal authority or modify government processes and procedures, Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document.
All four pages of the original U. S, according to the United States Senate, The Constitutions first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. The process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a governing body. The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States and it was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid through late, and ratification by all 13 states was completed by early Under the Articles of Confederation, the governments power was quite limited.
The Confederation Congress could make decisions, but lacked enforcement powers, implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. The Continental Congress could print money but the currency was worthless, Congress could borrow money, but couldnt pay it back. No state paid all their U.
No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments, by , the United States would default on outstanding debts as their dates came due. Internationally, the Articles of Confederation did little to enhance the United States ability to defend its sovereignty, most of the troops in the man United States Army were deployed facing — but not threatening — British forts on American soil. They had not been paid, some were deserting and others threatening mutiny, spain closed New Orleans to American commerce, U.
Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce, the Treasury had no funds to pay their ransom, if any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the sentiments and interests of the various states. Tennessee — Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 36th largest and the 17th most populous of the 50 United States, Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky and Virginia to the north, North Carolina to the east, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi to the south, and Arkansas and Missouri to the west.
The Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, Tennessees capital and second largest city is Nashville, which has a population of , Memphis is the states largest city, with a population of ,, the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a frontier pact generally regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was initially part of North Carolina, Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in , occupied by Union forces from , it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war.
Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia and this sharply reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the midth century.
This city was established to house the Manhattan Projects uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the worlds first atomic bomb, Tennessees major industries include agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism. Poultry, soybeans, and cattle are the primary agricultural products, and major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment.
In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, the town was located on a river of the same name, and appears on maps as early as The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain, some accounts suggest it is a Cherokee modification of an earlier Yuchi word.
It has been said to mean meeting place, winding river, according to ethnographer James Mooney, the name can not be analyzed and its meaning is lost. The modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, the spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlakes Draught of the Cherokee Country in When a constitutional convention met in to organize a new out of the Southwest Territory.
Other sources differ on the origin of the nickname, according to the Columbia Encyclopedia. Tennessee ties Missouri as the state bordering the most other states, the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6, feet, Clingmans Dome, which lies on Tennessees eastern border, is the highest point on the Appalachian Trail, and is the third highest peak in the United States east of the Mississippi River.
It is bordered on the north and east by New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania, New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state but the 11th-most populous and the most densely populated of the 50 United States.
New Jersey lies entirely within the statistical areas of New York City. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2, years, in the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes made the first European settlements.
New Jersey was the site of decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. The pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains, around 18, years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers that reached New Jersey. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as rivers, swamps. New Jersey was originally settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact, scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land that is now New Jersey.
The Lenape society was divided into clans that were based upon common female ancestors. These clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign, Turtle, Turkey, and Wolf and they first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, and their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade.
Although the European principle of ownership was not recognized by the Lenape. The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in along the North River which eventually became the Bergen, peter Minuits purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden. Since the states inception, New Jersey has been characterized by ethnic, New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants.
The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which inhabited the area. Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution, during the 20th century, Massachusetts economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in by the Pilgrims, in , the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of Americas most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials.
In , General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, in , Shays Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention.
In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, in the late 18th century, Boston became known as the Cradle of Liberty for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States.
Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, in the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams, both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, also in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance, the official name of the state is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. While this designation is part of the official name, it has no practical implications.
Massachusetts has the position and powers within the United States as other states. Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Narragansett, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc, Mahican, and Massachusett.
While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems.
This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that later became the United States, the event known as the First Thanksgiving was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World which lasted for three days. It is the second-most populous county in the United States after Los Angeles County, as of , the population was 5,, Cook Countys population is larger than that of 29 individual U.
That part of the county which lies outside of the Chicago city limits is divided into 29 townships, geographically, the county is the sixth-largest in Illinois by land area. It shares the states Lake Michigan shoreline with Lake County, including its lake area, the county has a total area of 1, square miles, the largest county in Illinois, of which square miles is land and square miles is water.
It is surrounded by what are known as the five collar counties, Cook County was created on January 15,, out of Putnam County by an act of the Illinois General Assembly. It was the 54th county established in Illinois and was named after Daniel Cook and he served as the second U. Cook County is the home rule county in Illinois.
The Cook County Juvenile Detention Center, under the authority of the Chief Judge of the State court, is the first juvenile center in the nation, the Cook County Law Library is the second-largest county law library in the nation.
In the s, Cook County was ground zero to an extensive FBI investigation called Operation Greylord, ninety-two officials were indicted, including 17 judges,48 lawyers,8 policemen,10 deputy sheriffs,8 court officials, and a state legislator.
The Bureau of Health Services administers the public health services and is the third-largest public health system in the nation. Three hospitals are part of system, John H.